In the early days of Active Directory, a decision had to be made as to whether you were going to do an in-place upgrade of your existing Windows NT 4.0 environment, or if you were going to do a “greenfield” migration. Some organizations had multiple domains and did a combination of both. As Active Directory (AD) grew in popularity, there were less greenfield migrations and more AD forest-level consolidations (especially with mergers and acquisitions increasing rapidly). In today’s world, there are now AD migrations occurring with the intent to be more secure.
Microsoft has responded to the repeated success of attackers pursuing horizontal kill chains via pass-the-hash and related attacks with a reference architecture and other best practices that seek to isolate privileged credentials. The term “Red Forest” has been coined as an informal name for a special administrative forest Microsoft recommends for holding the accounts that have privileged access to your production forest and require additional security.
The official name is the Enhanced Security Admin Environment (ESAE), and it’s is used to make your Active Directory much more secure. A key feature of the Red Forest model is that admin accounts are divided into three levels of security:
- Tier 0 — Basically enterprise admins with forest-level admin authority
- Tier 1 — Server, application and cloud admin authority
- Tier 2 — Administrative control of workstation and device
The recommendations only include Microsoft products (this makes sense as it would be hard to recommend other products that they have no control over). When using this architecture, one component that may not work for most organizations is disabling NTLM authentication. With that said, this may not be practical for all organizations (although I’d highly recommend this model if possible, but you many need to re-architect legacy applications).
A guiding principle of Microsoft’s security strategy is to “assume breach” (https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/trustcenter/security/default.aspx). With that said you may need to also consider doing a full migration of your existing environment to another environment as a risk mitigation. In most organizations, this can be a costly and time consuming project. Although Microsoft makes recommendations for only Microsoft products, I still believe Quest has some offerings that can complement this model.
Before you start Googling or searching TechNet, please note that this is NOT a well-known industry term (yet).
A customer of mine used this phrase “Orange Forest” when describing their implementation of the Red Forest. Due to the high cost of performing an AD migration, they were planning on deploying a separate administrative forest as the “Red Forest” suggests, but not do a migration. So they called this “Orange Forest”, as they were not quite fully red.
Reflecting on this term, I realized that the Quest portfolio has been allowing customers to act in the “Orange Forest” scenario for quite some time. By removing admins’ native rights to the directory and connecting to Active Directory via proxy, we added additional capabilities that can be useful in both the Red and Orange Forest scenario. Here are a few examples:
- Workflow approval prior to a change happening in Active Directory
- Workflow approval prior to a change happening in Group Policy
- Least privilege access of Active Directory and GPO’s
By having this proxy approach to your Active Directory, you can ensure nobody has more rights than they need to do their job and can eliminate users from having to be in privileged groups. Creating the least privilege access model can be difficult. However, Quest not only has AD tools that can help you, but also professional services offerings to provide you data to make a decision as to who should be able to do what in your environment.
If you have experienced a security breach, and have made the decision to move to the Red Forest design, a migration may soon be in your future. Quest has been doing migrations for decades, and have also been helping customers migrate to a new greenfield forest connected to your new Red Forest design. There are many challenges in doing a migration that you should consider.
- Application Remediation
- User downtime and experience
- Server migration
Blue refers to the Blue Team which is usually part of the security team tasked with defense of the network. Quest has products that can help you regardless of if you choose to go to the Red Forest or Orange Forest model and also have people that can help you in this transition. If you would like to discuss how we can best help please feel free to reach out!